Health insurance abroad

Health insurance abroadCurrently, there are three main different health systems. 1. Mainly state (UK.) 2. Mainly insurance system is presented in such European countries as Germany, France, Holland, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, some States, Latin America, Japan and other; they are home to more than 1 billion people - over a quarter of the world's population. 3. Mainly private (paid) system. (USA) Almost none of sufficiently developed countries these systems are not represented in its pure form. Moreover, in some countries receive preferential development of one or another system. Hard to call, besides the USA, a country dominated by private medicine and private voluntary health insurance. For example, in all countries, even with the state health system, there are organizations and institutions, carrying out voluntary private health insurance. Predominantly public health care system has evolved as the direction of social policy. As a result, the state strengthened its influence and control over the activities of medical and insurance organizations. Noteworthy is the fact that the health care system, for example, the UK was created based on the experience of the USSR. Experience of organization of state of the UK healthcare system proves its high efficiency and availability at relatively low cost medical care. The majority of funds coming from the state budget and is distributed from the top down chain of command. Centralized funding allows to constrain the rising cost of treatment. A significant drawback of budget financing of health care is the tendency to monopoly, ignoring the rights of patients, as a rule, no choice of doctor, medical institutions. In monopolistic structure inevitably reduce the quality of medical services due to dictate their representative (manufacturer, seller) and the lack of control over the activities of medical institutions on the part of users, consumers of medical services. Mainly insurance system based on the principles of solidarity. It is closely linked with the whole system of social insurance and are regulated by a single law. The insured and the insured given the opportunity to exercise control over the use of insurance funds, the insured is the possibility of choice of doctor, medical-prophylactic institutions. In insurance medicine, the most important are issues of equal access and payment for medical assistance provided to individuals from high-risk groups (elderly, poor, disabled), the optimal allocation of financial resources among groups of insured. The financing of such systems is provided from three sources: insurance premiums entrepreneurs - deductions from revenue (taxes); earnings of workers - deductions from wages; state budget funds. So Germany has one of the most developed systems of social health insurance. It was introduced in Europe in 1883 Bismarck, and now it covers more than 90% of the population (8% is covered by private health insurance, and 2% poor pays the state). This system provides the necessary medical care in case of illness for all insured. The system of mandatory insurance operates through non-profit insurance companies - health insurance Fund. It is an independent self-regulatory organization whose structure is defined by law. There are several types of offices: local (mainly for disabled, family members of the insured), located at the place of residence, industrial (workplace), marine, mining, agricultural and ersatz service (mainly for employees). Control and management of their activities provides government Agency. The French model of health insurance is characterized by an effective integration with the whole system of social insurance. In the social insurance system there are more than twenty different species, including medical illness, temporary disability, accident, pregnancy and childbirth. Laws approved the uniform procedure for insurance, which covers 80% of the population. Insurance system, which includes more than 90 insurance companies, controlled by the national organization. Social insurance funds formed at the national level, carry out the financing of compulsory health insurance program. Replenishment of funds is carried out by introducing insurance taxes, which is 90% of the Fund volume. When this insurance tax equal to 60% of the wage Fund. In addition to the mandatory state insurance there is a network of additional insurance and local funds for social assistance. Due to the last receive medical care uninsured French, which barely exceeds 2%. In Belgium earlier than in other countries was introduced the practice of public subsidies payment for medical care. In the health insurance system works six national unions insurance funds: Catholic (45% of the population), socialist (26%), liberal (7%), professional (15%), independent (4%) and minor (1%). Thus, 98% of the Belgians covered by mandatory health insurance, and only 1% is private. The management of the health insurance system by the national Institute for sickness and disability. Commercial insurance companies do not have their niche in the health insurance system. A high level of social protection, vseohvatno national health insurance, satisfaction with quality of medical care excluded urgent need for development of private insurance . Current state of public health of Japan is characterized by a very high indicators: life expectancy of 80 years (in Russia 60 years), the highest for developed countries. The infant mortality rate of 4.4 cases per 1000 live births, the lowest in the world. These successes are due to the high level of organization of medical insurance in Japan, based on the national system of compulsory medical insurance. The highest life expectancy in the country has forced the Ministry of health and welfare to pay special attention to the problem of organizing care and home care for the elderly. It is important to emphasize that in Japan the different groups of the population, regardless of income level, have the same opportunity to receive medical care.


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