Louis Pasteur

Louis PasteurFrench scientist, the founder of modern Microbiology and immunology, foreign corresponding member (1884) and honorary member (1893) St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Years of life: 1822-1895 The work of Pasteur on the optical asymmetry of molecules formed the basis of stereochemistry. Opened the nature of fermentation. Refuted the theory of spontaneous generation of microorganisms. Studied the etiology of many infectious diseases. Developed a method for prophylactic vaccination against chicken cholera (1879), anthrax (1881), rabies (1885). Introduced methods of asepsis and antisepsis. In 1888 he founded and headed the scientific research Institute of Microbiology (Pasteur Institute). Their first discovery by Pasteur did back in his student years, finding optical asymmetry of the molecules. Separating from each other two crystalline forms of tartaric acid, it showed that they differ in their optical activity (right - and levogyrate form). These studies formed the basis of a new scientific direction - stereochemistry. Later, Pasteur found that optical isomerism characteristic of many organic compounds, natural products, unlike synthetic, presents only one of the two isomeric forms. Since 1857, Pasteur turned his attention to the processes of fermentation. As a result of numerous experiments proved that fermentation is a biological process caused by the activities of microorganisms. Developing further these ideas, argued that each type of fermentation (lactic acid, alcohol, acetic) caused by specific organisms ("germs"). His theory Pasteur stated in the article About the fermentation, called milk (Sur la fermentation appele lactique, 1857). In 1861 opened the microorganisms that cause butyric acid fermentation, anaerobic bacteria, living and developing in the absence of free oxygen. Opening anaerobiosis brought Pasteur on the idea that organisms that live in environments devoid of oxygen, fermentation replaces breath. In 1860-1861 Pasteur suggested way of preserving food using heat treatment (later called pasteurization). In 1865, Pasteur began to study the nature of the disease of the silkworm and the result of years of research has developed methods of dealing with this contagious disease (1880). Studied other infectious diseases of animals and humans (anthrax, rabies, night blindness, rubella, pigs and others). Suggested method of vaccination against these and other infectious diseases with the use of attenuated cultures of the respective micro-organisms-pathogens. Suggested calling weakened culture vaccines, and the procedure for their application - vaccination. In 1880 Pasteur established viral rabies. Pasteur was a member of the academies of Sciences of many countries, particularly in St. Petersburg and Paris. Died Pasteur in Saint-cloud, near Paris, on September 28, 1895..

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